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IJJO Glossary

The GLOSSARY of the International Juvenile Justice Observatory (IJJO) comes into being for the purpose of collecting together the terms that form part of the jargon most commonly used by professionals and employees involved in juvenile justice around the world.

Being conscious of the concurrent diversity between the different models and systems of juvenile justice, this Glossary wishes to highlight the meeting points and the differences between the various terms collected and their translations in English, French and Spanish.

Without doubt this represents the result of a comprehensive research effort, with the team of the International Juvenile Justice Observatory taking part in the preparatory process, along with the support and collaboration of other professionals and organizations.

The Glossary is a useful and practical tool which, through the terms included, aims to facilitate a greater comprehension and understanding of the different concepts that define juvenile justice systems on an international level.

The drafting process was carried out using national and international sources, which assisted us in delimiting the list of terms to be included, and the content of the definitions given.

In any case, the designations and terms included in the Glossary, as well as the content of each definition, in no way represent any stance or assessment on the part of the IJJO with respect to any particular juvenile justice system or model.

All of the sources used in the process of preparing the Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ALL TERMS

Acquittal
Absolución / Acquittement
A child is acquitted where he or she is found not guilty of an offence by a competent authority.
United Nations. Manual for the measurement of the juvenile justice indicators

The legal certification, usually by jury verdict, that an accused person is not guilty of the charged offence.
United Nations. UNTERM

Adjudication hearing
Audiencia / Audience
Stage in juvenile court proceedings in which arguments, testimony, and evidence are presented to determine whether a youth actually committed the alleged offense.
United Nations. UNTERM. Author's translation from the original in Spanish

Administrative detention
Detención administrativa / Détention administrative
A child is held in administrative detention where he or she is held specifically under the power or order of the executive branch of government and is not subject to the usual juvenile justice or adult criminal justice system procedure.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Adult Criminal Justice System
Sistema de Justicia Penal para adultos / Système de Justice Pénale pour Adultes
The adult criminal justice system consists of the laws, procedures, professionals, authorities and institutions that apply to witnesses and victims, and to adults alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having committed a criminal offence.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child
Carta Africana sobre los Derechos y el Bienestar del Niño Africano / Charte africaine des droits et du bien-être de l'enfant
The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child spells out the rights that African States must ensure for children living in their jurisdiction. It is the main instrument of the African human rights system for promoting and protecting child rights. The Charter, which was adopted by the Organisation of African Unity (now the African Union) in July 1990, entered into force in November 1999. The Charter was the first regional treaty to address child rights. It is divided into two parts of four chapters. Part one deals with the rights, freedoms and duties of the child and has 31 articles. Part two deals with States’ obligations to adopt legislative and other measures to implement the provisions of the Charter and has 18 articles. The African Charter was created partly to complement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), but also because African countries were under-represented in the drafting process of the CRC, and many felt another treaty was needed to address the specific realities of children in Africa.
Children Right International Network

Alternatives to detention
Sanción sustitutiva (Medidas alternativas a la privación de libertad) / Peine de substitution
According to the 40 (4) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, a variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counselling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.
United Nations, Resolution 44/25- Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

Arrest
Aprehensión / Arrestation
A child is arrested where he or she is placed under the custody of the police, military, intelligence or other security forces because of actual, perceived or alleged conflict with the law.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Assault
Agresión / Agression
'Assault' may be understood to mean physical attack against the body of another person, including battery but excluding indecent assault. Some criminal or penal codes distinguish between aggravated assault and simple assault, depending on the degree of resulting injury.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

At risk of delinquency
En riesgo de delincuencia / Risque de délinquance
"80.Young people who live in difficult circumstances are often at risk of becoming delinquent. Poverty, dysfunctional families, substance abuse and the death of family members have been demonstrated to be risk factors for becoming delinquent. Insecurity due to an unstable social environment increases vulnerability, and young people with poorly developed social skills are less able to protect themselves against the negative influences of a peer group."
United Nations World Youth Report (2005)

Automobile theft
Hurto de automóviles / Vol de véhicule automobile
'Automobile theft' may be understood to mean the removal of a motor vehicle without the consent of the owner of the vehicle.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Basic procedural safeguards
Garantías jurídicas / Protection juridique
Basic procedural safeguards such as the presumption of innocence, the right to be notified of the charges, the right to remain silent, the right to counsel, the right to the presence of a parent or guardian, the right to confront and cross-examine witnesses and the right to appeal to a higher authority shall be guaranteed at all stages of proceedings.
Resolution 40/33 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Beijing Rules" (1985)

Beijing Rules
Reglas de Beijing / Règles de Beijing
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - Adopted by General Assembly resolution 40/33of 29 November 1985. These broad fundamental perspectives refer to comprehensive social policy in general and aim at promoting juvenile welfare to the greatest possible extent, which will minimize the necessity of intervention by the juvenile justice system, and in turn, will reduce the harm that may be caused by any intervention. Such care measures for the young, before the onset of delinquency, are basic policy requisites designed to obviate the need for the application of the Rules.
Resolution 40/33 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Beijing Rules" (1985)

Best interest of the child
Interés superior del niño / Intérêt supérieur de l'enfant
In all decisions taken within the context of the administration of juvenile justice, the best interests of the child should be a primary consideration. Children differ from adults in their physical and psychological development, and their emotional and educational needs. Such differences constitute the basis for the lesser culpability of children in conflict with the law. These and other differences are the reasons for a separate juvenile justice system and require a different treatment for children. The protection of the best interests of the child means, for instance, that the traditional objectives of criminal justice, such as repression/retribution, must give way to rehabilitation and restorative justice objectives in dealing with child offenders. This can be done in concert with attention to effective public safety.
General Comment No. 10 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child CRC/C/GC/10 - Children’s Rights in Juvenile Justice. (2007).

Burglary
Robo en inmuebles / Cambriolage
'Burglary' may be understood to mean unlawful entry into someone else’s premises with the intention to commit a crime.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Caution to the detained person
Instrucción (información) de derechos / Avertissement
Immediate and understandable information to be provided to any person who is arrested or imprisoned on the facts alleged against him, the reasons for his detention and the rights that are legally provided.
UNTERM, Translated from the original in Spanish

Charged
Imputado, inculpado, procesado, acusado / Prévenu (contraventions et délits), accusé (crimes)
A child is charged with an offence where the police, a law enforcement authority, the public prosecutor or a competent authority formally accuses him or her of having committed a specific offence.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Child
Niño / Enfant
A child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
United Nations, Resolution 44/25- Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

Child participation
Participación de los Niños / Participation des Enfants
According to the General Comment no 12 (2009) the Right of the Child to Be Heard states that the views expressed by children may add relevant perspectives and experience and should be considered in decision-making, policymaking and preparation of laws and/or measures as well as their evaluation. These processes are usually called participation. The exercise of the child’s or children’s right to be heard is a crucial element of such processes. The concept of participation emphasizes that including children should not only be a momentary act, but the starting point for an intense exchange between children and adults on the development of policies, programmes and measures in all relevant contexts of children’s lives.
General Comment No. 12 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child CRC/C/GC/12 - The right of the child to be heard. (2009)

All citizens have the right to participate in the workings of democratic society and children as full rights holders are no exception.. Children's participation means the right of children to be heard and involved in decision making, whether at home, in the general life of the community, at school or in individual legal and administrative matters that concern them.
Council of Europe

Child protection
Protección de los niños / Protection de l'enfant
UNICEF uses the term ‘child protection to refer to preventing and responding to violence, exploitation and abuse against children including commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking, child labour and harmful traditional practices, such as female genital mutilation/cutting and child marriage.
UNICEF

Community measures
Medidas basadas en la Comunidad / Mesures appliquées dans la communauté
"33. Communities should provide, or strengthen where they exist, a wide range of community-based support measures for young persons, including community development centres, recreational facilities and services to respond to the special problems of children who are at social risk. In providing these helping measures, respect for individual rights should be ensured."
Resolution 45/112 - United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency - "The Riyadh Guidelines" (1990)

"21.4. 'community sanctions or measures' means any sanction or measure other than a detention measure which maintains juveniles in the community and involves some restrictions of their liberty through the imposition of conditions and/or obligations, and which is implemented by bodies designated by law for that purpose. The term designates any sanction imposed by a judicial or administrative authority and any measure taken before or instead of a decision on a sanction, as well as ways of enforcing a sentence of imprisonment outside a prison establishment."
Recommendation (2008)11 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on the European Rules for juvenile offenders subject to sanctions or measures.

Community service orders
Prestación de servicios a la comunidad / Peine de travail d’intérêt général
'Community service orders' may be understood to mean sentences in which the convicted person is expected to perform some activity that provides some benefit to the community.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Competent authority
Autoridad competente / Autorité compétente
The competent authority is the part of the juvenile justice or adult criminal justice system that is responsible for making procedural or disposition decisions regarding a child's case.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

One who presides over courts or tribunals (composed of a single judge or of several members), including professional and lay magistrates as well as administrative boards (for example the Scottish and Scandinavian systems) or other more informal community and conflict-resolution agencies of an adjudicatory nature.
United Nations, UNTERM

Predetermined division of a whole within which lawful authority may be exercised- its limits may be geographic as well as by type, subject or seriousness of a case.
United Nations, UNICRI

Complaints mechanism
Mecanismo de examen de quejas / Mécanisme de plaintes
A complaints mechanism is any system that allows a child deprived of liberty to bring any aspect of the treatment that child has received, including violations of his or her rights, to the attention of the authority responsible for the place of detention, or any other official body established for such purpose.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Conflict with the law
Conflicto con la ley / Conflit avec la loi
A child is in conflict with the law where he or she has committed or has been accused of having committed an offence. Depending upon the local context, children may also be in conflict with the law where they are dealt with by the juvenile justice or adult criminal justice system for reason of being considered to be in danger by virtue of their behaviour or the environment in which they live.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Convicted
Condenado / Condamné
A child is convicted where he or she is found guilty of having committed an offence by the decision of a competent authority.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Crime prevention organised by the communities
Prevención de la delincuencia desde la comunidad / Prévention de la criminalité au niveau de la collectivité
Prevention involving local government, schools, parents and citizens, police and justice agencies and the private sector.
Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders: Community Involvement in Crime Prevention (Vienna, 10-17 April 2000).

Programs involving the community in planning, funding and implementing crime prevention activities.
United Nations, UNICRI

Criminal event
Suceso criminal / Fait délictueux
The criminal event is the most basic category for any criminal justice statistics system. It includes data on the 'criminal act', the 'offender' and the 'victim'.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Criminal responsibility
Responsabilidad penal / Responsabilité pénale
According to Beijing Rules, the minimum age of criminal responsibility differs widely owing to history and culture. The modern approach would be to consider whether a child can live up to the moral and psychological components of criminal responsibility; that is, whether a child, by virtue of her or his individual discernment and understanding, can be held responsible for essentially antisocial behaviour. If the age of criminal responsibility is fixed too low or if there is no lower age limit at all, the notion of responsibility would become meaningless. In general, there is a close relationship between the notion of responsibility for delinquent or criminal behaviour and other social rights and responsibilities (such as marital status, civil majority, etc.). Efforts should therefore be made to agree on a reasonable lowest age limit that is applicable internationally.
Resolution 40/33 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Beijing Rules" (1985)

The the General Comment no. 10 (2007) Children's rights in juvenile justice, has established that children who commit an offence at an age below that minimum cannot be held responsible in a penal law procedure. Even (very) young children do have the capacity to infringe the penal law but if they commit an offence when below the Minimum Age of Criminal Responsability the irrefutable assumption is that they cannot be formally charged and held responsible in a penal law procedure. For these children special protective measures can be taken if necessary in their best interests.
United Nations.Committee on the rights of the child

Customary norms
Norma consuetudinaria / Normes coutumières
Widespread consistent norms in the state in question, including long standing tribal or indigenous rules that may be known by a large part of the population.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Customs that are accepted as legal requirements or obligatory rules of conduct; practices and beliefs that are so vital and intrinsic a part of a social and economic system that they are treated as if they were laws.
United Nations, UNTERM

Deprivation of liberty/detained
Privación de libertad/detención / Privation de liberté
A child is deprived of liberty where he or she is placed in any form of detention or imprisonment in a public or private setting, from which the child is not permitted, by order of any competent authority, to leave at will.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Detention (separate from adults)
Detención (separado de los adultos) / Détention (séparée des adultes)
In accordance with Article 13.4 of the Beijing Rules, juveniles under detention pending trial shall be kept separate from adults and shall be detained in a separate institution or in a separate part of an institution also holding adults.
Resolution 40/33 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Beijing Rules" (1985)

Diversion
Remisión de casos / Mesure de déjudiciarisation (mesure alternative)
A child is diverted where he or she is in conflict with the law but has their case resolved through alternatives, without recourse to the usual formal hearing before the relevant competent authority. To benefit from diversion, the child and/or his or her parents or guardian must consent to the diversion of the child.s case. Diversion may involve measures based on the principles of restorative justice.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Drug-related offence
Delitos relacionados con drogas / Délits liés à la drogue/stupefiants
Drug-related offence may be understood to mean intentional acts that involve the cultivation, production, manufacture, extraction, preparation, offering for sale, distribution, purchase, sale, delivery on any terms whatsoever, brokerage, dispatch, dispatch in transit, transport, importation, exportation and possession of internationally controlled drugs.
United Nations.Manual for the measurement of juvenile justice indicators

Drug-related crime can be considered to include criminal offences in breach of drug legislation, crimes committed under the influence of illicit drugs, crimes committed by users to support their drug habit (mainly acquisitive crime and drug dealing) and systemic crimes committed as part of the functioning of illicit markets (fight for territories, bribing of officials, etc.).
European Commission. Justice and Social Affairs "Annual Report: The State of the Drugs Problem in the European Union and Norway" (2003)

Due process of law
Garantías del procedimiento legal / Garanties d'un procès équitable
The conduct of legal proceedings according to established principles and rules which safeguard the position of the individual charged. The term, the meaning of which varies with time and place, basically suggests fundamental fairness and tries to apply that concept to all parts of the criminal process.
United Nations. UNTERM.

Embezzlement
Apropiación indebida / Détournement de fonds
'Embezzlement' may be understood to mean the wrongful appropriation of another person’s property that is already in the possession of the person doing the appropriating.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Fair and just trial
Juicio imparcial y justo / Jugement équitable
It means to have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his or her age or situation, his or her parents or legal guardians.
United Nations, Resolution 44/25- Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

Fraud
Estafa / Escroquerie
'Fraud' may be understood to mean the acquisition of another person’s property by deception.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Good practice
Buenas prácticas / Bonnes pratiques
Effective practices that promote community safety and reduce crime in urban settings includes knowledge about a range of practices. Many of these programmes are effectively targeted to young people most at risk, or those living in areas of high risk and range from early childhood interventions, educational programmes, youth leadership, mediation and job and skills training to rehabilitation and reintegration programmes. To prevent violent behaviour and address delinquency, communities have to adopt strategies that combine such actions as prevention and intervention, as well as suppression.
United Nations World Youth Report (2005)

Havana Rules
Reglas de la Habana / Règles de La Havane
Adopted by General Assembly resolution 45/113 of 14 December 1990, the Rules are intended to establish minimum standards accepted by the United Nations for the protection of juveniles deprived of their liberty in all forms, consistent with human rights and fundamental freedoms, and with a view to counteracting the detrimental effects of all types of detention and to fostering integration in society. The Rules are designed to serve as convenient standards of reference and to provide encouragement and guidance to professionals involved in the management of the juvenile justice system.
Resolution 45/113 - United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty - "The Havana Rules" (1990)

Human rights
Derechos Humanos / Droits de l’homme
Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.
United Nations

Indicator (on juvenile justice)
Indicador (de la justicia de menores) / Indicateur (de la justice pour mineurs)
An indicator provides a common way of measuring and presenting information that reveals whether standards are being met. The juvenile justice indicators provide a framework for measuring and presenting specific information about the situation of children in conflict with the law. This information concerns both quantitative values - such as the number of children in detention on a particular census date - and the existence of relevant policy. The indicators are not designed to provide complete information on all possible aspects of children in conflict with the law in a particular country. Rather, they represent a basic dataset and comparative tool that offers a starting point for the assessment, evaluation and service and policy development.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Individual Rehabilitation Programmes
Programas individuales de rehabilitación / Programme de réhabilitation individuelle
The restoration of an optimum state of health by medical, psychological, social, and peer group support for a chemically dependent person, a person disabled by an accident or illness. Can also refer to the psychosocial rehabilitation process as applied to delinquents during or after emprisonment.
United Nations. UNTERM

Informed consent
Consentimiento informado / Consentement informé préalable
The child must freely and voluntarily give consent in writing to the diversion, a consent that should be based on adequate and specific information on the nature, content and duration of the measure, and on the consequences of a failure to cooperate, carry out and complete the measure. With a view to strengthening parental involvement, States parties may also consider requiring the consent of parents, in particular when the child is below the age of 16 years.
General Comment No. 10 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child CRC/C/GC/10 – Children’s Rights in Juvenile Justice. (2007).

Intentional Homicide
Homicidio doloso / Homicide volontaire
'Intentional homicide' may be understood to mean death deliberately inflicted on a person by another person, including infanticide.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Irregular situation (Risk Factors)
Situación Irregular (factores de riesgo) / Situation irrégulière
Although it may not be an offence under the law in question, children may come into contact with the juvenile justice or adult criminal justice system as a result of being considered to be in danger from the environment in which they live.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

JDLs (Juveniles deprived of their liberty)
Menores privados de libertad / Mineurs privés de liberté
A juvenile is every person under the age of 18. The age limit below which it should not be permitted to deprive a child of his or her liberty should be determined by law;The deprivation of liberty means any form of detention or imprisonment or the placement of a person in a public or private custodial setting, from which this person is not permitted to leave at will, by order of any judicial, administrative or other public authority.
Resolution 45/113 - United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty - "The Havana Rules" (1990)

Juvenile (Juvenile System)
Menor (Justicia Juvenil) / Mineur (Justice Juvénile)
A juvenile is a child or young person who, under the respective legal systems, may be dealt with for an offence in a manner which is different from an adult.
Resolution 40/33 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Beijing Rules" (1985)

Juvenile delinquency
Delincuencia juvenil / Délinquance juvénile
Juvenile delinquency covers a range of different violations of legal and social norms, ranging from minor offences to severe crimes committed by minors. Quite often youth take advantage of illegal opportunities and get involved in crime, substance abuse and violent acts against others, especially their peers. Statistically young people constitute the most criminally active segment of the population, although eventually most young people will desist from criminal and deviant activity.
United Nations World Youth Report (2005)

Juvenile justice system
Sistema de justicia juvenil / Système de justice pour mineurs
The juvenile justice system consists of the laws, policies, guidelines, customary norms, systems, professionals, institutions and treatment specifically applicable to children in conflict with the law and to witnesses and victims.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Juvenile offender/delinquent
Menor delincuente; delincuente juvenil / Délinquant Juvenile
A juvenile offender is a child or young person who is alleged to have committed or who has been found to have committed an offence.
Resolution 40/33 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Beijing Rules" (1985)

Legal Assistance
Asistencia letrada (al detenido); defensa letrada / Assistance juridique
"49. The child must be guaranteed legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his/her defence. CRC does require that the child be provided with assistance, which is not necessarily under all circumstances legal but it must be appropriate. It is left to the discretion of States parties to determine how this assistance is provided but it should be free of charge. The Committee recommends the State parties provide as much as possible for adequate trained legal assistance, such as expert lawyers or paralegal professionals. Other appropriate assistance is possible (e.g. social worker), but that person must have sufficient knowledge and understanding of the various legal aspects of the process of juvenile justice and must be trained to work with children in conflict with the law. 50. As required by article 14 (3) (b) of ICCPR, the child and his/her assistant must have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his/her defence. Communications between the child and his/her assistance, either in writing or orally, should take place under such conditions that the confidentiality of such communications is fully respected in accordance with the guarantee provided for in article 40 (2) (b) (vii) of CRC, and the right of the child to be protected against interference with his/her privacy and correspondence (art. 16 of CRC). A number of States parties have made reservations regarding this guarantee (art. 40 (2) (b) (ii) of CRC), apparently assuming that it requires exclusively the provision of legal assistance and therefore by a lawyer. That is not the case and such reservations can and should be withdrawn."
General Comment No. 10 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child CRC/C/GC/10 – Children’s Rights in Juvenile Justice. (2007).

Mediation
Mediación / Médiation
The process by which the victim and the offender are given the opportunity to meet, voluntarily and in a neutral, safe, confidential and structured setting, in the presence of a trained mediator, with the objective that the offender recognizes the impact of the damage caused and takes responsibility for it, building a joint (victim-offender) action plan in order to deal with this and repair the said damages.
Translated by the author from the original in Spanish

Minimum age of criminal responsibility
Edad mínima de responsabilidad penal / Age de responsabilité pénale
The minimum age of criminal responsibility differs widely owing to history and culture. The modern approach would be to consider whether a child can live up to the moral and psychological components of criminal responsibility; that is, whether a child, by virtue of her or his individual discernment and understanding, can be held responsible for essentially antisocial behaviour. If the age of criminal responsibility is fixed too low or if there is no lower age limit at all, the notion of responsibility would become meaningless. In general, there is a close relationship between the notion of responsibility for delinquent or criminal behaviour and other social rights and responsibilities (such as marital status, civil majority, etc.). Efforts should therefore be made to agree on a reasonable lowest age limit that is applicable internationally.
Resolution 40/33 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Beijing Rules" (1985)

Monitoring bracelet
Brazalete electrónico / Bracelet électronique
Electronic device worn at the wrist or at the ankle and used to track the movements of persons who have committeed crimes, or to verify the use by an individual of substances such as alcohol. Variants: (1) electronic monitoring bracelet; (2) electronic tracking bracelet; (3) tracking bracelet; (4) electronic ankle bracelet; (5) electronic wrist bracelet; (6) parole bracelet; (7) ankle bracelet.
United Nations. UNTERM

NGO (non-governmental organization)
ONG(Organización no gubernamental) / ONG(Organisation non gouvernementale)
A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a not-for-profit, voluntary citizens’ group, which is organized on a local, national or international level to address issues in support of the public good. Task-oriented and made up of people with common interests, NGOs perform a variety of services and humanitarian functions, bring citizens’ concerns to governments, monitor policy and programme implementation, and encourage participation of civil society stakeholders at the community level. They provide analysis and expertise, serve as early warning mechanisms, and help monitor and implement international agreements. Some are organized around specific issues, such as human rights, the environment or health.
United Nations, Department of Public Information Non-Governmental Organizations

No retroactive juvenile justice
Justicia de menores no retroactiva / Pas de justice rétroactive pour les mineurs
According to Article 40 (2) (a) of CRC affirms that the rule that no one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national or international law, at the time it was committed is also applicable to children (see also article 15 of ICCPR). It means that no child can be charged with or sentenced under the penal law for acts or omissions which at the time they were committed were not prohibited under national or international law. In the light of the fact that many States parties have recently strengthened and/or expanded their criminal law provisions to prevent and combat terrorism, the Committee recommends that States parties ensure that these changes do not result in retroactive or unintended punishment of children. The Committee also wishes to remind States parties that the rule that no heavier penalty shall be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence was committed, as expressed in article 15 of ICCPR, is in the light of article 41 of CRC, applicable to children in the States parties to ICCPR. No child shall be punished with a heavier penalty than the one applicable at the time of his/her infringement of the penal law. But if a change of law after the act provides for a lighter penalty, the child should benefit from this change.
General Comment No. 10 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child CRC/C/GC/10 – Children’s Rights in Juvenile Justice. (2007).

Non-custodial measures
Medidas no privativas de libertad / Mesures non privatives de liberté
"21.4 'community sanctions or measures' means any sanction or measure other than a detention measure which maintains juveniles in the community and involves some restrictions of their liberty through the imposition of conditions and/or obligations, and which is implemented by bodies designated by law for that purpose. The term designates any sanction imposed by a judicial or administrative authority and any measure taken before or instead of a decision on a sanction, as well as ways of enforcing a sentence of imprisonment outside a prison establishment."
Council of Europe. Recommendation (2008)11 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on the European Rules for juvenile offenders subject to sanctions or measures.

There is a variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counselling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.
United Nations, Resolution 44/25- Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

Non-intentional homicide
Homicidio culposo / Homicide involontaire
'Non-intentional homicide' may be understood to mean death not deliberately inflicted on a person by another person. That includes the crime of manslaughter but excludes traffic accidents that result in the death of persons.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Offence
Delito / Infraction
A child commits an offence where he or she commits any act punishable by the law by virtue of the legal system in question.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Any behaviour (act or omission) that is punishable by law under the legal system concerned.
UNICEF Thesaurus

Parole
Libertad Condicional / Liberté conditionnelle
'Parole' may be understood to mean conditional release of a prisoner whereby the individual is allowed to serve the remainder of the sentence outside the prison, assuming that all the terms of that release are met.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Perpetrator
Autor material / Auteur
Person carrying out or bringing about a crime or a deception.
United Nations. UNTERM

Persons prosecuted
Personas condenadas / Personnes condamnées
'Persons prosecuted' may be understood to mean alleged offenders prosecuted by means of an official charge, initiated by the public prosecutor or the law enforcement agency responsible for prosecution.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Place of detention
Lugar de detención / Lieu de détention
A place of detention is any public or private facility where a child is deprived of liberty.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Policies
Políticas / Politiques
Means all national policy instruments pertaining to children in conflict with the law, including executive orders and ministerial documents.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Pre-trial detention/Detention pending trial
Privación de libertad anterior a la sentencia (Prisión preventiva) / Détention provisoire
A child is held in pre-sentence detention where he or she is deprived of liberty and is awaiting a final decision on his or her case from a competent authority.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

In a general legal context, someone who is being held in custody by government authories. For example: - during the investigation of his possible participation in a crime ("investigate detention"); - prior to trial on criminal charges either because the established bail could not be posted or because release was denied ("pre-trial detention" or "temporary detention") [Cf., pre-trial detainee]; - or in the case of a criminal defendant who has threatened to escape or otherwise violated the law while awaiting trial or who is considered mentally ill and susceptible of causing harm ("preventive detention"). As regards refugee and immigrant law, a detainee is an alien in the custody of government authorities who is waiting for officials to decide if he or she may stay in the country or will be forced to leave. (Variant: internee)
United Nations, UNTERM

Prevention
Prevención / Prévention
According to Rihad Guidelines on prevention of juvenile delinquency is an essential part of crime prevention in society. By engaging in lawful, socially useful activities and adopting a humanistic orientation towards society and outlook on life, young persons can develop non-criminogenic attitudes. The successful prevention of juvenile delinquency requires efforts on the part of the entire society to ensure the harmonious development of adolescents, with respect for and promotion of their personality from early childhood.
Resolution 45/112 - United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency - "The Riyadh Guidelines" (1990)

Prevention involves the active creation of an environment that deters children from conflict with the law. Such an environment should ensure for the child a meaningful life in the community and foster a process of personal development and education that is as free from crime as possible.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Primary prevention
Prevención Primaria / Prévention primaire
General measures to promote social justice and equal opportunity, which thus tackle perceived root causes of offending such as poverty and other forms of marginalization.
UNICEF,Juvenile Justice, Innocenti Digest.

Approaches that aim to prevent violence before it occurs.
World Health Organisation. World Report on Violence and Health - Summary, (Geneva 2002)

Prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions
Cárceles, instituciones penales o instituciones correccionales / Prisons, établissements pénitentiaires
Prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions may be understood to mean all public and privately financed institutions where persons are deprived of their liberty. The institutions may include, but are not limited to, penal, correctional, or psychiatric facilities under prison administration.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Probation
Libertad vigilada / Probation
Probation is a non-custodial measure involving the monitoring and supervision of a child whilst he or she remains in the community. A competent authority, the public prosecutor, the social welfare service or a probation officer usually supervises probation. Probation may be employed as a measure on its own, or following a custodial sentence.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Probation officer
Agente de Libertad Vigilada / Agent de probation
A probation officer is the government official responsible for supervising a period of probation. He or she is often in charge of conducting an assessment of the child and referring him or her to appropriate counselling, education and reintegration programmes.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Professional judges or magistrates
Jueces y Magistrados Profesionales / Juges et magistrats professionnels
'Professional judges or magistrates' may be understood to mean both full-time and part-time officials authorized to hear civil, criminal and other cases, including in appeal courts, and make dispositions in a court of law. Please include in that category associate judges and magistrates, who may be authorized as above.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Proportionality principle
Principio de proporcionalidad / Principe de proportionalité; critère de proportionalité
The Beijing Rules establish that the "juvenile justice system shall emphasize the well-being of the juvenile and shall ensure that any reaction to juvenile offenders shall always be in proportion to the circumstances of both the offenders and the offence." The second objective is 'the principle of proportionality'. This principle is well-known as an instrument for curbing punitive sanctions, mostly expressed in terms of just deserts in relation to the gravity of the offence. The response to young offenders should be based on the consideration not only of the gravity of the offence but also of personal circumstances. The individual circumstances of the offender (for example social status, family situation, the harm caused by the offence or other factors affecting personal circumstances) should influence the proportionality of the reactions (for example by having regard to the offender's endeavour to indemnify the victim or to her or his willingness to turn to wholesome and useful life).
Resolution 40/33 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Beijing Rules" (1985)

Prosecution personnel
Ministerio Público / Représentant du ministère public
"Prosecution personnel" may be understood to mean a government official whose duty is to initiate and maintain criminal proceedings on behalf of the state against persons accused of committing a criminal offence. In some countries, a prosecutor is a member of a separate agency; in others, a prosecutor is a member of the police or judiciary. Please indicate the title of the agency in your country under which the prosecutor functions. If more than one criminal justice system operates in your country (e.g., federal/provincial systems or civilian/martial systems) please provide separate information about prosecutorial functions in each system. Data concerning support staff (secretaries, clerks etc.) should be excluded.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Public order offence
Delito de desorden público / Atteinte à l'ordre public
A public disorder offence is an offence involving a breach of the peace or a public nuisance.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Rape
Violación / Viol
'Rape' may be understood to mean sexual intercourse without valid consent.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Recidivism
Reincidencia / Récidive
A tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior; especially relapse into criminal behavior
United Nations. UNTERM

Records on juvenile justice(information related to Juvenile Justice System)
Registros (información relacionada al sistema de Justicia Juvenil) / Archives sur la justice pour mineurs(Information sur le Système de Justice)
Court Record books containing short case summaries and judgments as well as administrative records, as established in Beijing Rules: "Records of juvenile offenders shall be kept strictly confidential and closed to third parties. Access to such records shall be limited to persons directly concerned with the disposition of the case at hand or other duly authorized persons. Records of juvenile offenders shall not be used in adult proceedings in subsequent cases involving the same offender." The rule attempts to achieve a balance between conflicting interests connected with records or files: those of the police, prosecution and other authorities in improving control versus the interests of the juvenile offender. (See also rule 8.) "Other duly authorized persons" would generally include, among others, researchers.
Resolution 40/33 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Beijing Rules" (1985)

Restorative justice
Justicia restaurativa/reparadora / Justice restorative/réparatrice
Restorative justice is a way of responding to criminal behaviour by balancing the needs of the community, the victims and the offenders. It is an evolving concept that has given rise to different interpretation in different countries, one around which there is not always a perfect consensus. Also, because of the difficulties in precisely translating the concept into different languages, a variety of terminologies are often used. There are many terms that are used to describe the restorative justice movement. These include 'communitarian justice', 'making amends', 'positive justice', 'relational justice', 'reparative justice', 'community justice' and 'restorative justice', among others.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Handbook on Restorative Justice Programmes" (United Nations, New York, 2006).

A systematic repsonse to wrongdoing that emphasizes healing the wounds of victims, offenders and communities caused or revealed by crime. Practices and programmes reflecting restorative purposes will: (1) identify and take steps to repair harm done; (2) involve all stakeholders; (3) transform the traditional relationship between communities and their Governments. Three principles form the foundation for restorative justice: (1) Justice requires that we work to restore those who have been injured; (2) Those most directly involved and affected by crime should have the opportunity to participate fully in the response if they wish; (3) Government's role is to preserve a just public order, and the community's is to build and maintain a just peace. Related terms, as defined in the Basic principles on the use of restorative justice programmes in criminal matters: (1) restorative justice programmes -- any programme that uses restorative processes and seeks to achieve restorative outcomes. (2) restorative process -- any process in which the victim and the offender, and, where appropriate, any other individuals or community members affected by the crime, participate together actively in the resolution of matters arising from the crime, generally with the help of a facilitator. Restorative processes may include mediation, conciliation, conferencing and sentencing circles. (3) restorative outcome -- an agreement reached as a result of a restorative process. Restorative outcomes include response and programmes such as reparation, restitution and community service, aimed at meeting the individual and collective needs and responsibilities of the parties and achieving the reintegration of the victim and the offender.
United Nations, UNTERM

Restorative justice programme
Programa de justicia restaurativa / Mesure de justice réparatrice
A programme which uses any process in which the victim and the offender, and, where appropriate, any other individuals or community members affected by a crime, participate together actively in the resolution of matters arising from the crime, generally with the help of a facilitator. Restorative processes may include mediation, conciliation, conferencing and sentencing circles.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Return to the community
Reintegración en la comunidad / Retour dans la communauté
According UN Rules for the portection of juveniles deprived of their liberty, agencies and facilities should have a clear policy and carry out agreed procedures relating to the planned and unplanned conclusion of their work with children to ensure appropriate aftercare and/or follow-up. Throughout the period of care, they should systematically aim at preparing the child to assume self-reliance and to integrate fully in the community, notably through the acquisition of social and life skills, which are fostered by participation in the life of the local community.
Resolution 45/113 - United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty - 2The Havana Rules" (1990)

Riyadh Guidelines
Directrices de Riyad / Principes directeurs de Riyad
After the preliminary activities, the eighth congress advised the General Assembly to adopt the United Nations Guidelines for the prevention of juvenile delinquency. The guidelines were adopted and proclaimed in its resolution 45/112 on the 14th of December 1990. In the beginning, the Guidelines were elaborated during a meeting in the Arabic Centre for the Security Studies and Training in Riyadh, hence the name Riyadh Guidelines. The Guidelines establish the rules for the prevention of juveniles delinquency as well as the protection measures for young people who have been abandoned, neglected, abused or those who are living marginalized - in other words, at 'social risk'. The Guidelines include the pre-conflict phase: before young people are in conflict with the law. They concentrate on the child and are based on the premises that it is necessary to counteract those conditions that affect negatively on the healthy development of the child. Therefore, exhaustive and multidisciplinary measures were proposed to ensure young people to have a life without crimes, victimization and conflicts with the law. The Guidelines are focused on a preventive and protective intervention and they aim to promote a general effort of various social organizations, including the family, the educational system, the media and the community as well as the young people themselves.
International Juvenile Justice Observatory

Robbery
Robo / Vol à main armée
Robbery may be understood to mean the theft of property from a person, overcoming resistance by force or threat of force.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Secondary prevention
Prevención secundaria / Prévention secondaire
Measures to assist children who are identified as being more particularly at risk, such as those whose parents are themselves in special difficulty or are not caring appropriately for them.
UNICEF,Juvenile Justice, Innocenti Digest.

Approaches that focus on the more immediate responses to violence, such as pre-hospital care, emergency services or treatment for sexually transmitted diseases following a rape.
World Health Organisation. World Report on Violence and Health - Summary, (Geneva 2002)

Sentence
Sentencia / Condamnation
A competent authority passes a sentence when - notwithstanding any right of appeal - it makes a final decision about a child's case and rules that the child shall be subject to certain measures.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Serious offence against a person
Delitos grave contra una persona / Infraction grave contre la personne
A serious person offence is homicide, non-intentional homicide, kidnapping, rape, sexual assault or abuse, assault or an attempt to carry out any of these acts.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Serious property offence
Delito contra la propiedad / Infraction grave contre les biens
A serious property offence is burglary, robbery or arson, or an attempt to carry out any of these acts. Burglary is the unlawful entry into someone else.s premises with the intention to commit a crime. Robbery is the theft of property from a person, overcoming resistance by force or the threat of force.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Social Integration
Integración Social / Intégration Sociale
The aim of social integration is to create "a society for all", in which every individual, each with rights and responsibilities, has an active role to play. Such an inclusive society must be based on respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms, cultural and religious diversity, social justice and the special needs of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, democratic participation and the rule of law.
United Nations

Status offences
Delito [o falta] en razón de la condición personal / Délit d’état (lié au statut de mineur)
The so-called "status offences" prescribed in various national legal systems where the range of behaviour considered to be an offence is wider for juveniles than it is for adults (for example, truancy, school and family disobedience, public drunkenness, etc.).
Resolution 40/33 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Beijing Rules" (1985)

"A status offence is an act or behaviour that is only punishable if the person committing it is aged under eighteen, or is believed to be aged under eighteen."
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Suspended sentence
Sentencia condicional / Condamnation avec sursis
Sentence imposed by a court with the clause that its execution is not implemented unless the convicted offender commits another crime within a certain period of time.
United Nations. UNICRI

Tertiary prevention
Prevención terciaria / Prévention tertiaire
Schemes to avoid unnecessary contact with the formal justice system and other measures to prevent reoffending.
UNICEF.Juvenile Justice, Innocenti Digest.

Approaches that focus on long-term care in the wake of violence, such as rehabilitation and reintegration, and attempts to lessen trauma or reduce the long-term disability associated with violence.
World Health Organisation. World Report on Violence and Health - Summary, (Geneva 2002)

The right to reparation
Derecho a la Reparación / Droit à réparation
"35. Child victims should, wherever possible, receive reparation in order to achieve full redress, reintegration and recovery. Procedures for obtaining and enforcing reparation should be readily accessible and child-sensitive. 37. Reparation may include restitution from the offender ordered in the criminal court, aid from victim compensation programmes administered by the State and damages ordered to be paid in civil proceedings. Where possible, costs of social and educational reintegration, medical treatment, mental health care and legal services should be addressed. Procedures should be instituted to ensure enforcement of reparation orders and payment of reparation before fines."
Resolution 2005/20 of the United Nations Economic and Social Council - Guidelines on Justice in Matters involving Child Victims and Witnesses of Crime (2005)

Theft
Hurto / Vol
Theft is the removal of property without the consent of the owner. Theft excludes burglary and housebreaking.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Time spent in prison awaiting trial
Duración de la detención en prisión en espera de juicio / Temps passé en prison avant jugement
'Time spent in prison awaiting trial' may be understood to mean the time spent in custody (e.g., police custody, remand prison) between the time of arrest or apprehension and the time of pronouncement of guilt or innocence by a criminal court or other legal body duly authorized to make such a finding by national law, irrespective of whether the decision was later upheld or not.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Tokyo Rules
Reglas de Tokio / Règles de Tokyo
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures: adopted by General Assembly Resolution 45/110 of 14 December 1990 provide a set of basic principles to promote the use of non-custodial measures, as well as minimum safeguards for persons subject to alternatives to imprisonment.They are intended to promote greater community involvement in the management of criminal justice, specifically in the treatment of offenders, as well as to promote among offenders a sense of responsibility towards society.
Resolution 45/110 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules on Non-custodial Measures - "The Tokyo Rules" (1990)

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)
Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño de Naciones Unidas / Convention des Nationes Unies relative aux droits de l'enfant
The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rights civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. In 1989, world leaders decided that children needed a special convention just for them because people under 18 years old often need special care and protection that adults do not. The leaders also wanted to make sure that the world recognized that children have human rights too. The Convention sets out these rights in 54 articles and two Optional Protocols. It spells out the basic human rights that children everywhere have: the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life. The four core principles of the Convention are non-discrimination; devotion to the best interests of the child; the right to life, survival and development; and respect for the views of the child. Every right spelled out in the Convention is inherent to the human dignity and harmonious development of every child. The Convention protects children's rights by setting standards in health care; education; and legal, civil and social services. Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989. It entered into force 2 September 1990. Variant: International Convention on the Rights of the Child
UNICEF. United Nations

Vienna Guidelines
Directrices de Viena / Directives de Vienne
UN Guidelines on the Administration of Juvenile Justice: the ‘Vienna Guidelines', displayed in ECOSOC Resolution 1997/30 (1997). Pursuant to Economic and Social Council resolution 1996/13 of 23 July 1996, the present Guidelines for Action on Children in the Criminal Justice System were developed at an expert group meeting held at Vienna from 23 to 25 February 1997 with the financial support of the Government of Austria. In developing the Guidelines for Action, the experts took into account the views expressed and the information submitted by Governments and they are related to the Administration of Justice for minors offenders.
Resolution 1997/30 of the United Nations Economic and Social Council on Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Vienna Guidelines" (1997)

Violence prevention
Prevención de la violencia / Prévention de la violence
Violence is a multifaceted problem with biological, psychological, social and environmental roots. There is no simple or single solution to the problem; rather, violence must be addressed on multiple levels and in multiple sectors of society simultaneously. Based on the perspective provided by the ecological model, violence prevention programmes and policies can be targeted at individuals, relationships, communities and whole societies, and delivered in collaboration with different sectors of society in schools, workplaces, other institutions and criminal justice systems. Violence prevention is most likely to be successful if it is comprehensive and scientifically based. In general, interventions that are delivered in childhood and those that are sustained over time are more likely to be effective than short-term programmes.
World Health Organisation. World Report on Violence and Health - Summary, (Geneva 2002)

Youth detention centre (Place of detention)
Lugar de privación de libertad (Centro de internamiento) / Maison de correction (Lieu de détention)
A child is 'deprived of liberty' where he or she is placed in any form of detention or imprisonment in a public or private setting, from which the child is not permitted, by order of any competent authority, to leave at will. Institutions in which children may be deprived of liberty may include: Police stations Detention centres Prisons (including adult prisons) Closed remand homes Work or boot camps Penitentiary colonies Closed specialised schools Reformatory schools Educational or rehabilitation establishments Military camps or prisons Immigrant centers Secure youth hostels This list is by no means exhaustive.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

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