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Dimanche 25 Août 2019

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Juillet 2017 - Janvier 2020 - Union Européenne Droits, Enfant, Justice, Mineurs

In order to properly apply child-friendly justice, respecting children’s right to information is essential, as well as adapting such information to their age, in a language that they can understand (Guidelines of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on Child Friendly Justice, 2010). Children should be informed about their rights during all stages of the proceedings, in a language which they are able to understand.

In this framework, the project ‘Child-Friendly JT - The right of minors to information, translation and interpretation in criminal proceedings: Development of child-friendly justice tools’, aims to contribute to the correct implementation of Directives 2012/13/EU (on the right of information in criminal proceedings), 2010/64/EU (on the right to interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings) and 2016/800/EU (on procedural safeguards for children suspected or accused in criminal proceedings).

To do so, children's knowledge of their rights during the judicial process will be assessed. In order to analyse this knowledge, an evaluation questionnaire will be created, and later, discussion groups within detention centres for juvenile offenders will be organised.

After an evaluation of the needs expressed during the project, three information brochures will be created for children, in which their rights throughout the criminal procedure will be presented. The brochures will also contain relevant information on criminal procedures, all in a language adapted to the child’s comprehension capacity.

In order to develop these documents, the needs of the different participating countries will be analysed through the results obtained. These brochures will be different according to each stage of the judicial process: police arrest / custody, trial and detention. The goal is for children to be able to participate in their own judicial process and for them to be aware of their rights.

In addition, taking into consideration the child’s right to interpretation and translation under a child-friendly justice system, these brochures will be translated into the 24 official languages of the European Union, as well as in the 3 non-official languages most present within European juvenile justice systems.

Likewise, 3 information brochures will be developed for parents/holders of parental authority, in order for them to have access to clear information, available in a simplified language.

In order to analyse the impact and the effectiveness of the information brochures, a pilot study containing a pre and post evaluation will be carried out with 2 independent groups (juvenile offenders and children outside the juvenile justice system).

Click here to go to the project's web section on the IJJO website.

Septembre 2017 - Juin 2019 - Union Européenne Justice, Juvénile, Systèmes, Sécurité

The earliest stages of criminal procedures frequently determine the overall fairness of proceedings. During the pre-trial interrogation of vulnerable suspects or accused persons key evidence is often obtained and the admissibility of this evidence can determine the ultimate outcome of the case.

There is a growing recognition of the need for vulnerable suspects to be accorded special safeguards at the interrogation stage to ensure their fair treatment and effective participation, as expressed by the Commission Recommendation C(2013) 8178/2 (S3§13).

Although there is a slow move in the direction of increased audiovisual recording of the interrogation of vulnerable suspects or accused persons, the picture across Europe is patchy. A number of states resist the introduction of recording for a range of reasons, including cost, technical challenges and ensuring privacy.

The project ‘ProCam - Procedural Rights Observed by the Camera: Audiovisual Recordings of Interrogations in the EU’, supported by the Justice Programme of the European Union, aims to research the connection between the audiovisual recording of any questioning of vulnerable persons and the enforcement of their rights, as advised in the Commission Recommendation.

The project will research the role of audio-visual recording in securing the rights granted in Directive 2013/48, alongside facilitating EU-wide identification of good practices of recording interrogation of vulnerable persons, and the understanding of related concerns.

The project remit covers analysing international standards, researching practices in the 28 EU Member States, exchanging experiences between national stakeholders, comparing Member State laws and practices, proposing reform to reinforce good practices, and disseminating project findings at the European Parliament.

Click here to go to the project's web section on the IJJO website.

Janvier 2017 - Janvier 2019 - Union Européenne Justice, Juvénile, Réparatrice, Victimes

The Directive establishing minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime (hereafter, the ‘Victims Directive’), adopted on 25th October 2012, strengthens the rights of victims and their families to information, support and protection, and lays out the procedural rights of victims when participating in criminal proceedings. It expects EU Member States (EUMS) to ensure that professionals are trained on victims’ needs.

Concretely, article 12 of The Directive establishes the right of victims to safeguards to ensure that «victims who choose to participate in restorative justice processes, have access to safe and competent restorative justice services». The Directive defines restorative justice (RJ) as «any process whereby the victim and the offender are enabled, if they freely consent, to participate actively in the resolution of matters arising from the criminal offence through the help of an impartial third party» (article 2).

Research in Europe and in other regions has revealed that victims report lower levels of fear and post-traumatic stress symptoms after a restorative justice process. Furthermore, these kinds of processes play a major role in enhancing guarantees for children and young people involved in the process, both as perpetrators and victims of harm, who may have particular vulnerabilities due to their young age.

The outcomes of such a process must be to restore as much as possible what has been lost, damaged or violated. Victims can regain some power over their lives by having the person who harmed them accountable directly to them, by receiving answers to their questions, and by telling their story of the harm and its impact. These needs are also met through apology, reparation and compensation. All these processes require communication, preferably face-to-face, between the parties.

The proactive attitude of European institutions on children’s rights in general, as well as child-friendly justice and victims' protection in particular, has created a favourable environment in the EU for justice reforms. However, in Europe far too few people who have been harmed participate in such meetings with those who have harmed them. Justice, education and other key systems seem reluctant, usually due to a lack of knowledge and experience about RJ, to enable most victims to gain access to restorative processes.

This context is the reason why the IJJO is launching the project ‘Implementing Restorative Justice with Child Victims’ (JUST/2015/RDAP/AG/VICT/9344). Its main objective will be to extend and adapt the research on RJ to demonstrate its effectiveness for young victims. Collaborating with the European Forum of Restorative Justice (EFRJ) on this project, the IJJO has decided to use the strength of two big European networks together and the experience and knowledge of the EFRJ on restorative justice to implement successful practices of juvenile restorative justice in the EU, in order to address the needs of young victims of crime committed by young offenders in the most satisfying ways.

The project will provide an opportunity for mutual learning between six countries, three of which are already using restorative justice with children successfully (the “mentor” partners), and the other three will implement observed restorative practices as part of a monitored pilot project (the “mentee” partners). In addition, in order to provide knowledge about good practices to a large pool of professionals, a practical guide on how to implement three RJ practices with children and youth will be created, and an online course will be developed based on it.

Main Activities

  • 3 pilot projects, based on a mentor-mentee relationship:
    • 3 field visits (Finland, Northern Ireland, Belgium)
    • 1 two day training session during the 3rd field visit (Belgium)
    • 3 monitoring visits (1 per country – Latvia, France, Bulgaria), as well as 2 half day meeting with national coalitions in 3 countries (Latvia, France, Bulgaria)
    • 1 two day internal training sessions in 3 countries (Latvia, France, Bulgaria)
    • ten months of concrete implementation of pilot projects in 3 countries (Latvia, France, Bulgaria)
  • Drafting of a practical guide on Implementing Restorative Justice with Children
  • Online training course based on the practical guide (2 sessions + adaptation in a self-directed course to remain online at the end of the project)
  • Final conference in Brussels

 

Click here to go to the project's web section on the IJJO website.

Janvier 2017 - Décembre 2018 - Union Européenne

Juvenile justice systems in Europe have undergone considerable changes during the past 20 years, particularly in the former socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) region. These legal and structural changes concerned the implementation of alternative measures, diversion, victim-offender mediation and other restorative techniques in the majority of the countries in the CEE region.

Despite these positive movements, juvenile justice systems still have been characterized by a focus on punishment rather than rehabilitation, prosecution rather than diversion, and on detention rather than community alternatives. These practices often respond to public demands on reacting towards juvenile delinquency by more severe sanctioning. Even though the current legislation in the target CEE countries (Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary) recognises restorative approaches such as mediation, as well as sentences of community service, in most cases, these are rarely imposed. Belgium is also a target country, where restorative approaches are recognised and best practice can be identified (and will be collected throughout the project) however the main actors are still reluctant to use the existing system of diversion/restorative justice and use instead deprivation of liberty as main measure.

In this context of improvement, amongst fluctuations and challenges, in diverting children in conflict with the law from imprisonment, the following determined challenge remains in the target CEE countries: diversion and alternatives to imprisonment are generally less accessible for children from rural areas and the poorest backgrounds. In this way, juvenile justice reforms are confined to the Capital City; data on juvenile sentencing practices in general, and diversion in particular, is not available, incomplete, and in most cases, inaccessible; there is little or no evidence of progress in continued use of services; limited availability of after-care services that support reintegration into society for children who have been in conflict with the law and  juvenile justice professionals often do not use practices in the area of diversion due to lack of services and limited knowledge of child-friendly judicial practices.

It appears that while there are available services and opportunities for diversion, the current measures are not appropriate, effective, or even recorded as such, so while most legislation now recognises diversion, the recognition is characterised by narrow limits. It comes out that introducing diversion not only requires new legal and procedural frameworks, but also a shift in the roles and aims of the juvenile justice systems.

In this regard, the project ‘AWAY - Alternative Ways to Address Youth’ (JUST/2015/RCHI/AG/PROF) seeks to promote the use of diversion in order to have, in practice, a child friendly approach to the juvenile justice system. To address the challenges in this area, this project will conduct research and develop an empirical evidence base on diversion that will inform the juvenile justice in the region; it will provide professional support to multidisciplinary professionals to become more aware and better equipped in using diversion mechanisms and finally; it will endeavour to enhance public awareness on the benefits of diversion for children. 

MAIN ACTIVITIES

• Research in Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary and Romania to identify the challenges or obstacles for the use of diversion and map existing alternative services for children in rural areas.

• Identify and map good practices and experiences in Belgium.

• Work with children at risk or in conflict with the law in Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary and Romania as members of child advisory boards to ensure that their experiences, views, opinions are reflected and considered throughout all project activities.

• Develop and implement an interactive online learning course for multidisciplinary professionals including two face-to-face sessions with professionals in three locations of each country, one-on-one and group mentoring sessions, and online forum discussions.

• Create and launch a public campaign in each country influencing public perceptions about juvenile offenders and promoting alternative sentencing as beneficial for the development of children and their better integration in society as productive members. Specific advocacy events targeting EU Member States and the Council of Europe.

• Publish stories and articles, increasing publicity on the subject.

Click here to go to the project's web section on the IJJO website.

Janvier 2017 - Décembre 2018 - International Justice, Juvénile, Législation, Mesures, Terrorisme

Comme l’agenda européen et les événements récents l’ont montré, le problème de la radicalisation et de l’extrémisme violent, qui peuvent mener au terrorisme, sont devenus une priorité pour la plupart des Etats membres.

Néanmoins, dans la précipitation de la mise en place de législations nationales et européennes de lutte contre le terrorisme, peu voire aucune considération n’a été accordée au fait que certains des suspects ou des « terroristes » puissent être des enfants ou des mineurs.

La façon dont les personnes suspectées de terrorisme sont traitées en règle générale doit être prise en compte à la lumière des conséquences qu’elle peut avoir sur les jeunes filles ou garçons suspectés de moins de 18 ans, qui sont des enfants avant d’être des suspects. Pourtant, les politiques et les pratiques adaptées aux enfants dans le domaine de la lutte contre le terrorisme n’existent pas dans la plupart des Etats membres de l’Union Européenne, et quand c’est le cas, elles sont spécifiques à chaque Etat et les expériences prometteuses ne sont pas partagées entre les Etats membres.

De plus, les agences de justice juvénile et les professionnels ainsi que les acteurs sociaux de beaucoup d’Etats membres ont fait part du besoin pressant de soutien pour les aider à identifier, prévenir et agir avec la radicalisation et l’extrême violence chez les enfants et les jeunes adultes.

Par conséquence, le projet « Renforcer les systèmes de justice juvénile dans le contexte de la lutte contre le terrorisme : Renforcement des capacités et enseignement mutuel entre les acteurs » (JUST-2015-JCOO-AG-TERR) vise à adresser l’unique situation des jeunes et leur protection sous les lois internationales et européennes dans le contexte de la lutte contre le terrorisme.

De même, il aborde les besoins et l’urgence pour les systèmes de justice pour mineurs de recourir à des mesures extrajudiciaires, alternatives et communautaires en plus, et si possible à la place, des réponses traditionnelles de la justice pénale dans le traitement des jeunes radicalisés.

De plus, du fait de la situation particulière de vulnérabilité et des risques de recrutement dans les centres de détention, il est primordial de porter une attention spéciale aux enfants privés de liberté. La prévention de la radicalisation juvénile dans les centres de détention, ainsi que le besoin de concevoir des programmes de déradicalisation et d’insertion sociale, font aussi parties du programme.

Le projet est lancé en janvier 2017 et devrait se terminer aux alentours de décembre 2018.

 

Activités principales :

 

Travail de recherche et d’analyse : Identification, analyse et mise en lumière de pratiques prometteuses concernant la lutte anti-terrorisme et les politiques publiques, de stratégies et programmes dirigés vers les jeunes radicalisés dans les Etats membres ; analyse et cartographie des pratiques prometteuses au niveau européen, identification des facteurs clés de succès, évaluation des résultats et validation de ces expériences.

Recherches sur le terrain/visites suivies par des séminaires nationaux : les pratiques prometteuses mises en avant dans les pays partenaires sont observées et étudiées, et plus tard commentées pendant les séminaires nationaux.

Rédaction d’un livre blanc concernant des politiques, contenant les recommandations et les lignes directrices issues des résultats du projet, pour les Etats membres et les institutions de l’EU, ainsi que les professionnels des systèmes de justice juvénile.

Rédaction d’un rapport régional offrant une vue d’ensemble sur les pratiques et réponses prometteuses concernant les politiques, basé sur les résultats de la recherche.

Lancement et gestion d’une communauté en ligne de pratiques pour les spécialistes européens, qui permettra le partage des pratiques, expériences et idées, ainsi que la mise en œuvre de mesures, concernant les politiques de lutte contre le terrorisme et les programmes destinés aux jeunes.

Conférence finale à Paris pour présenter les résultats du projet et la première version du livre blanc.

Cliquez ici pour accéder à la section Web du projet sur le site Web de l'OIJJ.

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