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Saturday 16th of November 2019

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IJJO Glossary

The GLOSSARY of the International Juvenile Justice Observatory (IJJO) comes into being for the purpose of collecting together the terms that form part of the jargon most commonly used by professionals and employees involved in juvenile justice around the world.

Being conscious of the concurrent diversity between the different models and systems of juvenile justice, this Glossary wishes to highlight the meeting points and the differences between the various terms collected and their translations in English, French and Spanish.

Without doubt this represents the result of a comprehensive research effort, with the team of the International Juvenile Justice Observatory taking part in the preparatory process, along with the support and collaboration of other professionals and organizations.

The Glossary is a useful and practical tool which, through the terms included, aims to facilitate a greater comprehension and understanding of the different concepts that define juvenile justice systems on an international level.

The drafting process was carried out using national and international sources, which assisted us in delimiting the list of terms to be included, and the content of the definitions given.

In any case, the designations and terms included in the Glossary, as well as the content of each definition, in no way represent any stance or assessment on the part of the IJJO with respect to any particular juvenile justice system or model.

All of the sources used in the process of preparing the Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ALL TERMS

Rape
Violación / Viol
'Rape' may be understood to mean sexual intercourse without valid consent.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

Recidivism
Reincidencia / Récidive
A tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behavior; especially relapse into criminal behavior
United Nations. UNTERM

Records on juvenile justice(information related to Juvenile Justice System)
Registros (información relacionada al sistema de Justicia Juvenil) / Archives sur la justice pour mineurs(Information sur le Système de Justice)
Court Record books containing short case summaries and judgments as well as administrative records, as established in Beijing Rules: "Records of juvenile offenders shall be kept strictly confidential and closed to third parties. Access to such records shall be limited to persons directly concerned with the disposition of the case at hand or other duly authorized persons. Records of juvenile offenders shall not be used in adult proceedings in subsequent cases involving the same offender." The rule attempts to achieve a balance between conflicting interests connected with records or files: those of the police, prosecution and other authorities in improving control versus the interests of the juvenile offender. (See also rule 8.) "Other duly authorized persons" would generally include, among others, researchers.
Resolution 40/33 - United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice - "The Beijing Rules" (1985)

Restorative justice
Justicia restaurativa/reparadora / Justice restorative/réparatrice
Restorative justice is a way of responding to criminal behaviour by balancing the needs of the community, the victims and the offenders. It is an evolving concept that has given rise to different interpretation in different countries, one around which there is not always a perfect consensus. Also, because of the difficulties in precisely translating the concept into different languages, a variety of terminologies are often used. There are many terms that are used to describe the restorative justice movement. These include 'communitarian justice', 'making amends', 'positive justice', 'relational justice', 'reparative justice', 'community justice' and 'restorative justice', among others.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Handbook on Restorative Justice Programmes" (United Nations, New York, 2006).

A systematic repsonse to wrongdoing that emphasizes healing the wounds of victims, offenders and communities caused or revealed by crime. Practices and programmes reflecting restorative purposes will: (1) identify and take steps to repair harm done; (2) involve all stakeholders; (3) transform the traditional relationship between communities and their Governments. Three principles form the foundation for restorative justice: (1) Justice requires that we work to restore those who have been injured; (2) Those most directly involved and affected by crime should have the opportunity to participate fully in the response if they wish; (3) Government's role is to preserve a just public order, and the community's is to build and maintain a just peace. Related terms, as defined in the Basic principles on the use of restorative justice programmes in criminal matters: (1) restorative justice programmes -- any programme that uses restorative processes and seeks to achieve restorative outcomes. (2) restorative process -- any process in which the victim and the offender, and, where appropriate, any other individuals or community members affected by the crime, participate together actively in the resolution of matters arising from the crime, generally with the help of a facilitator. Restorative processes may include mediation, conciliation, conferencing and sentencing circles. (3) restorative outcome -- an agreement reached as a result of a restorative process. Restorative outcomes include response and programmes such as reparation, restitution and community service, aimed at meeting the individual and collective needs and responsibilities of the parties and achieving the reintegration of the victim and the offender.
United Nations, UNTERM

Restorative justice programme
Programa de justicia restaurativa / Mesure de justice réparatrice
A programme which uses any process in which the victim and the offender, and, where appropriate, any other individuals or community members affected by a crime, participate together actively in the resolution of matters arising from the crime, generally with the help of a facilitator. Restorative processes may include mediation, conciliation, conferencing and sentencing circles.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Return to the community
Reintegración en la comunidad / Retour dans la communauté
According UN Rules for the portection of juveniles deprived of their liberty, agencies and facilities should have a clear policy and carry out agreed procedures relating to the planned and unplanned conclusion of their work with children to ensure appropriate aftercare and/or follow-up. Throughout the period of care, they should systematically aim at preparing the child to assume self-reliance and to integrate fully in the community, notably through the acquisition of social and life skills, which are fostered by participation in the life of the local community.
Resolution 45/113 - United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty - 2The Havana Rules" (1990)

Riyadh Guidelines
Directrices de Riyad / Principes directeurs de Riyad
After the preliminary activities, the eighth congress advised the General Assembly to adopt the United Nations Guidelines for the prevention of juvenile delinquency. The guidelines were adopted and proclaimed in its resolution 45/112 on the 14th of December 1990. In the beginning, the Guidelines were elaborated during a meeting in the Arabic Centre for the Security Studies and Training in Riyadh, hence the name Riyadh Guidelines. The Guidelines establish the rules for the prevention of juveniles delinquency as well as the protection measures for young people who have been abandoned, neglected, abused or those who are living marginalized - in other words, at 'social risk'. The Guidelines include the pre-conflict phase: before young people are in conflict with the law. They concentrate on the child and are based on the premises that it is necessary to counteract those conditions that affect negatively on the healthy development of the child. Therefore, exhaustive and multidisciplinary measures were proposed to ensure young people to have a life without crimes, victimization and conflicts with the law. The Guidelines are focused on a preventive and protective intervention and they aim to promote a general effort of various social organizations, including the family, the educational system, the media and the community as well as the young people themselves.
International Juvenile Justice Observatory

Robbery
Robo / Vol à main armée
Robbery may be understood to mean the theft of property from a person, overcoming resistance by force or threat of force.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

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