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IJJO Interviews- IJJO Thematic Interview - 'Drug - Related and Juvenile Crime' - Spain

Thursday 15th of December 2011 | National, Spain

Thematic interview in the frame of the PROGRAMME 'PREVENTION OF AND FIGHT AGAINST CRIME' - DREJC 'Drug - Related and Juvenile Crime' (JLS/2007/ISEC/500) - as a result of the active participation of the following experts: Mr. Rafael Forcada Chapa, Ms. Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez and Ms. María Jesús Justo Nieto, in collaboration with the entity Fundación Diagrama - Intervención Psicosocial (Spain), member and active participant of this European program.

What is your role or function in the area of juvenile delinquency related to drugs? Or more specifically, related to young people involved in crime due to drug consumption/addiction.

Rafael Forcada Chapa.- I am a psychiatrist in an educational centre – a therapist in detention centres for young people who have been criminalised due to drug use or mental disturbances.

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- I worked as an educator as part of treatment teams in detention centres. I also worked as a deputy director on treatment programs. I later worked as head of prison programs for the government delegation on the National Plan on Drugs; from there I was involved in the promotion of a National Strategy on Drugs, specifically in the area of sentences and punishments: extending damage reduction programs to all detention centres, and the promotion of drug programs in police stations and courts.
Currently as a technical advisor for the government’s delegation on the National Plan on Drugs (Ministry for Health and Social Policies). I am involved in:
- The development of information systems on programs, projects and research into young offenders, detainees and inmates with problems related to drug use/abuse.
- The design of prevention and treatment policies relating to drugs within the detention system, including young offenders who have been detained, mentioned in the previous approved Strategy on Drugs.
I would like to point out that the latest publications are Survey into Health and Drugs in Prisons and Action is Possible in Prison.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- Psychologist. Lazarillo Programme - Cáritas. The Educational Intervention Unit deals with cases of minors with drug related problems who have committed a crime and received a judicial sentence. It promotes integral psycho-educational measures both with the young person and their family, through individual and combined interviews.
When necessary specialist resources are used (legal consultancy, medical services, labour orientation, training programmes, etc).
The role of this resource is to work on educational, personal and familial aspects that can contribute in some way to the halt of consumption, reducing risk factors and promoting protection factors.

1. Who are young drug users?

Could you provide profile of a young drug addict?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.- There is a wide typology of young people who have committed crimes related to drug use, which can be summarised as follows:
1- Young people with previous behavioural problems, in which behaviour prevails over drugs. Drug consumption often leads to an increase in antisocial behaviour which had (already) existed in childhood. They usually commit a range of crimes (with or without violence, against family members or strangers), which is an expression of a lack of control over their behaviour caused by drug use and the need to supply themselves with drugs. That is to say, they commit crimes for pleasure and the emotions it creates as much as to benefit from the crime, and their crimes may be lucrative or not (e.g. dangerous conduct, fighting, etc).
2- Young people with disturbances due to substance use. Often these young people have had relatively normal development and behaviour until the addiction occurred. It is drug use which leads to problems with integration in school and family life and the emergence of psychological consequences (irritability, anxiety, depression...). Often they have been charged with violent behaviour towards family, at least during the initial phases of dependence. Over the course of a number of years they turn to other types of crime to pay for their consumption.
3- Young people who sometimes suffer from psychological problems (psychiatric disturbances) alongside addiction. They are the minority; the existence of mental illness in teenagers makes social situations very difficult and therefore the access to substances is difficult also, although represent the worst case.

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- Most young people are not addicts, as the findings of the School Survey into Drug Use demonstrates (ETUDES is a survey carried out on young people aged between 14 and 18 years old every two years); a certain percentage of young people start experimenting with drugs, mostly with legal drugs (tobacco and alcohol), although a significant percentage also try cannabis. This does not imply that they are addicts. One must distinguish between use, abuse and dependence. The results of these surveys are available on our website (National Plan on Drugs).
I don’t think that the question has been phrased correctly – establishing a profile of young offenders. In this sense, it must be pointed out, in line with various studies, that the variable or risk factor is the consumption of drugs; they begin at a younger age and experiment more than young people who are not offenders. This delegation has subsidised various studies through SAJIAD, CEPS on this area, the results were published in our annual report.
I also want to review the survey into health and drug consumption amongst the prison population in 2005-2006. It includes:
- A new prisoner profile: if we bear in mind the variables of age, young prisoners consume drugs in a different manner from older people, they use stimulant drugs, more specifically cocaine;
- The report also highlights that a significant percentage have experienced being in a detention centre for minors.
- The importance of social factors on health.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- Young people between 14 and 22 years, largely males, most consume tobacco, but only a small number smoke above 10 cigarettes a day, because unlike other substances, there is a perception of higher risk associated with tobacco.
With age consumption patterns change, first towards alcohol and joints; if they move on to other substances it will be amphetamines, and then cocaine. Young people who come to the centre with problems related to cocaine usually also have problems with alcohol (young people between 17 and 22 years). The majority come because of multi-consumption of marihuana, hash and alcohol (daily joints, alcohol consumption over weekends linked to the trend of drinking on the street 'botellón').
In terms of their personality, they appear to lack the ability to control their impulses, are disruptive in the family, in educational centres, in social circles,....which leads to violent behaviour, in some cases both with friends and at home, almost always towards the mother, and a low tolerance of feelings of frustration.

Is there a particular age range or gender?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.- In terms of cocaine and heroin, it has been confirmed that there is a trend of an increase in substance use, i.e. it begins with tobacco, continues with beer and cannabis, and moves on to stronger drinks before reaching illegal drugs.
It seems to be a constant among adolescents with serious addiction that tobacco consumption begins between 10 – 12 years, and at the age of 14 years old for cannabis.
Therefore it seems that there is a critical transition stage between use and addiction, which is the transition stage between primary to secondary education - change of school and social group, along with less supervision by the relevant centres.

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- From 16 years onwards both drug use/abuse and criminal acts increase. The sources are works I have mentioned, such as statistics from Ministry for the Interior.
The gender variable in the case of women is the issue of protection. Although from a historical point of view there has been an increase of women with criminal behaviour, there are various criminological hypotheses on this subject, from the perspective of gender, plausible theories focus on factors such as social exclusion, “feminisation of poverty”.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- There are three stages in adolescence which have been defined by certain authors as follows:
13 – 15 early adolescence; 15 – 17 intermediate adolescence and 18 – 21 late adolescence. Young people in the intermediate stage of 15-17, can have a difficult time dealing with their different problems; they have no insight into the problem. In this case working with the family is fundamental, including cases when work is carried out solely with the family.

Could you describe the cultural, social and familial context of addict minors?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.- It is varied and arises in many different contexts. Among the cases we see in educational centres and therapeutic centres, (there is probably some bias here, because the most serious cases enter these centres), the following stands out:
- Young people from families with a high prevalence of drug addiction. Fragmented families, with a lack of parental supervision. The transmission of anti-social values in their education. The tendency to repeat the criminal past of their parents. Families are a goal of social intervention services and often have spent prolonged periods of time in refuge centres.
- Young people from families with a suitably formal structure (often with dysfunctional relationships).
- Foreign young people. Young people from Maghreb who are alone or Latin American minors who are with their families but lack supervision due to parents working (often it is solely the mother). In both cases the initial stages of drug use occurs within gangs, encouraged by feelings of gang identity and in turn the committing of crimes for survival and the need to fulfil personal needs.

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- Of an addict young offender?. The following description is found in the publication mentioned previously:
- In general, a context lacking in stimulus, and fragmented and/or dysfunctional families.
- High levels of school failure and dropout rates.
- A lack of positive attitudes towards education. In general, there is a lack of long term planning and projects.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- In the majority of cases there are problems with failure at school and absenteeism. They usually do not finish secondary education, and it is therefore worthwhile considering an initial professional qualification course. Once enrolled on one of these courses, absenteeism and problems in the educational centre diminish considerably. They feel more motivated and they are more suited to the profile of the professionals working alongside them.
Their social profile is not linked to fragmented families or marginalised neighbourhoods; their social profile is very wide ranging, including coming from normal family backgrounds. It is assumed that these young people did not have clear guidance or boundaries during their childhood.

2. What drugs are regularly used or abused?

Could you please list the narcotics which are used or abused?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.-
- Among juvenile delinquents, regular consumption of tobacco, cannabis and mildly alcoholic drinks is practically the norm.
- There is a significant group (probably more than 50% among young delinquents) that consume cocaine through the nasal passage and/or frequently use other stimulants without there actually being any clear cut addiction. This progresses rapidly towards complete dependence on cocaine and the abandonment of other stimulants.
- Crack (cocaine based) and/or heroin addicts are a minority, although there has been notable increase in heroin use among young people over the past few years.
- Young Latin Americans who carry out criminal behaviour, are invariably marihuana users and often abuse high dose benzodiazepines (rivotril, trankimazin, etc.) alongside alcohol. Cocaine consumption through the nasal passage sometimes occurs alongside this.
- The use of inhalants (and cannabis) is very common among young people from Maghreb.

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- I would reiterate what has been said in the first question. In line with certain surveys, the School Survey into Drugs, (ETUDES is a survey carried out amongst young people of 14-18 years old every two years), a percentage of young people begin experimenting with drugs, mostly with legal drugs (alcohol and tobacco), although a significant number also try cannabis. In terms of young offenders, a greater number consume illegal drugs, and stimulants such as cocaine.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.-
- 99% consume tobacco.
- Alcohol is consumed at the weekends – linked to street drinking 'botellón'.
- Consumption of cannabis (mainly marihuana, but also hash).
- In some cases, amphetamines such as speed or crystal 'M', and cocaine.
- And some young people from the age of 18 consume cocaine + alcohol, linked to socialising at the weekends.

b. Could you tell us about consumption trends amongst minors?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.- Usually consumption is a social activity and occurs within groups on the street.
The consumption of stimulants and highly alcoholic drinks is a regular occurrence during the weekends and in the social context of parties, car parks and outside clubs. The consumption of cannabis and beer occurs during the week, mainly in public parks.
Only in the case of crack or heroin is consumption solitary (or with a few older companions, who carry out no other activities together) and this occurs in hidden areas.

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- Firstly, as well as places we can distinguish between subgroups and populations, for example non-criminalised young people consume alcohol and tobacco in social settings. Among risk minors - young offenders, there are higher levels of consumption of legal and illegal drugs and the times and places are less precise.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- Those young people who are regularly absent from school consume cannabis when not at school. This type of consumption also occurs before entering the classroom, during break hours and after class.
As consumption becomes more habitual, and mainly between the ages of 15 and 17, it becomes common place in any circumstances: in groups, parks, (this is often combined with the consumption of a litre of some kind of alcohol), bars; the initial stages of solitary consumption, and consumption in the home. The trend of having a joint before bed is very common place.
The consumption of alcohol often occurs during the weekends, but within the trend of multi-consumption of tobacco, cannabis (and in some cases speed and/or cocaine). Young people who consume amphetamines, designer drugs, are often linked to techno music.
Cannabis, first to enjoy themselves, then to deal with boredom, as the young people have a lot of free time. In some situations drug use occurs in order to deal with emotional states: relaxation, to lose one’s inhibitions, sleep better, and communicate better with people, etc.

3. What are the most common crimes committed by these young people?

What crimes committed in order to buy drugs?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.-
- Crimes against property, of a varying degree of seriousness: assault, armed robbery.
- Threats.
- Violence within the family with the aim of obtaining money.
- Crimes against public health.

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- The purchase of drugs in itself is a crime according to our legislation.

What crimes are committed under the influence of drugs?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.-
- Mistreatment of family.
- Road crimes.
- Damage through vandalism.
- Fights.

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.-
- Alcohol: road crimes, domestic violence.
- Stimulants: crimes against people, sex crimes.
- Depressants such as heroine: crimes related to failure to carry out action.

What types of crimes are committed related to use, excessive consumption and prohibition (possession, selling, drug trafficking)?

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- The use of illegal drugs is not punishable as a criminal offense in Spain. Nor is possession for consumption, including possession/dealing to friends or family with an addiction (for example a mother giving drugs to her son in prison) - legislation excuses this.
It is the people that grow, cultivate and transport the drugs who are punished. The promotion of illegal consumption of drugs, possession to these ends, and the manufacture, transport, distribution and trade of illegal substances are all treated as crimes against public health.
Driving under the influence of drugs (including alcohol) is also punished criminally as a crime against road safety.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- Minors on the program do not usually commit crimes. Those that have done so have usually done it for the following reasons:
- Crimes against physical integrity (injuries, fights, mistreatment of family).
- Crimes against road safety (driving without a license and under the influence of alcohol).
- Crimes against public health (selling cannabis).
- Crimes against property (robbery of mainly mobiles, computers, consoles, damage in the home).

Fights occur under the influence of substances. Robberies do not usually occur under the influence of substances, nor do they occur due to a lack of substances, given that we do not consider these young people to have an addiction and therefore do not suffer from withdrawal symptoms. This might occur in some cases, mainly with young people who consume cannabis, but it is not very common. Robberies have been committed mainly in order to gain money and spend it on a whim, not necessarily on drugs.

4. Approach and methods of assistance and intervention

Do you think there is a link between the type of narcotic substance used or consumed in excess and the types of crimes committed by young people; as in the Juvenile Justice Systems Strategies? In this case, what are they?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.- There is no connection. Anti-social behaviour is an expression of the vulnerability of the minor in various areas (psychological, familial, educational, social...) and in these cases the consumption of drugs is more an expression of behavioural problems. Every young person commits crimes which he/she is capable of committing irrespective of whichever drug is influencing their behaviour.
With regards to the type of sentences it is fundamental that they guarantee the most absolute abstinence possible. Currently it is recognised that the human brain continues to develop until the age of 21 and that the presence of drugs in the nervous system during theses phases of growth conditions its structure and functioning and in fact this will affect the characteristics of an adult who consumed drugs as an adolescent (affecting characteristics such as impulsiveness, ability to plan ahead, etc).

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- In line with published documentation:
- Heroine is linked to crimes against the father.
- Stimulants are linked to crimes against people and sex crime.
- Alcohol is linked to domestic violence and road safety crimes.

However, these interpretations require further research. For example, in terms of road crime, the consumption of drugs must be treated the same as that of alcohol. The judicial sphere is familiar with the devastating effects of heroine. According to studies based on an analysis of sentences and interviews with judges, it is easier to appreciate addiction problems related to heroine abuse, and it is easier to apply non-custodial measures. However, the type of crime must be borne in mind - while heroine users represent a less dangerous criminal profile (crimes against the father, robbery, burglary), stimulant drug users are linked to a higher number of crimes which cause social disarray (sex crimes, domestic violence, causing injury), so much so that some sectors talk about not deeming drug use as constituting extenuating circumstances or excuses, given that drugs are sometimes used to lose one’s inhibitions and carry out premeditated criminal activity.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- With certain substances yes, but not for all minors. If we consider that the consumption of substances determines the committing of certain crimes, it is necessary that the sentences which are passed are of an educational and not a punishing nature and that they address the real problem behind the committing of the crime, which is drug consumption.

What factors are involved in this type of conflict?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.- Basically those factors that have already been mentioned. Working with the family, in the environment in which the young person with problems developed and in which he will continue to develop, is fundamental. Social inclusion – having a job as a means of obtaining independence from a sometimes conflicted family is a priority in reaching certain goals.

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- In general, the management of juvenile centres and many measures are in the hands of not for profit organisations, although supervision and evaluation of this falls to autonomous administrations.
The role of the private sector should be more prominent, through funding fixed measures.
The role of administration should be more efficient and effective, bearing in mind that we are refereeing to the deprivation of the rights of minors, the logical thing would be that measures are as closely monitored and evaluated as they are for adult offenders. As a matter of fact, various reports criticise the management of this area, pointing out reports such as the Defence of the Minor.
The role of justice: judicial responses should be faster and more balanced. In order to ensure that the sentence is educational it must be just and fixed to a certain time period, so that the young person views it as a consequence to his/her actions; this is a basic principal of social training that disgracefully is not applied in many cases. There must be an awareness of the fact that the length of sentences given is problematic, and not their implementation.

Of course both the young person and the family are involved in the conflict and are often directly affected, and in many cases measures to a higher or lesser degree influence the familial environment, which is an argument in favour of mediation measures.
The victim should not be forgotten either, in many cases minors with families; they should have a more active role, although through mediation teams of professionals (educators, criminologists, etc).

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- Primarily, the young person and their family. The educational centre, professionals linked to leisure activities. A re-lapse into what initially caused conflict issues.

What intervention and assistance strategies are available?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.- In our Autonomous Community there are specific prevention programs for adolescents at risk, headed by Community Prevention Units (local entities) and treatment through the Addict Behaviour Units (Health Ministry).

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- In terms of drugs, the existing strategies are:
- Therapeutic programs in certain detention centres.
- Therapeutic centres for detained minors.
- Assistance in resources for centres for recently released offenders in the community.

In line with published reports, it has become evident that there is a lack of therapeutic centres and programs aimed at young offenders.
There is also a lack of prevention programs, although they are being held in educational centres, they should be implemented and adapted to specific circumstances in all detention centres. Especially if we consider that we are dealing with a population at risk, in situations of risk, it would be suitable to develop specially selected and appropriate preventative programs within these contexts.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- There are programs of Indicated Prevention that work with young people between the ages of 13 and 22 years approximately. These young people consume substances but are not addicts. The main problem for these young people is related to education, work and family, where consumption is not the cause of the problem but contributes to it.
These programs work with the young person, and with the family through individual and joint interviews and with all of those agents close to the young person, with the aim of strengthening the factors of protection and minimising risk factors (Educational centres).
There are schools for young people and educational centres for families.
Controlling consumption through 'Uricontroles', but not always, if not it is better to have foreseen supervision.
Where possible these interviews are held in normal surroundings (health centres, parishes, social clubs) with the aim avoiding stigmatisation, given that prevention resources are usually linked to treatment programs for drug addicts.
When there is a health problem the relevant professional is involved (a doctor from the prevention program, a child or adolescent psychiatrist).
Risk situations are avoided at all times, through normalising resources and searching for alternatives within the community.
In situations where the family does not provide protection and cannot be linked to the ambulatory programs, there are therapeutic centres within an internal regime. In these cases it is assumed that the young person needs to be admitted to a centre to ensure an end to the situation, as a resource of limitation; given that this process, which should ordinarily be carried out by the family, must instead be carried out by a centre. These cases are usually the result of a judge decision or for the protection of minors. Centres are arranged with the Castille Leon Council.
When it is the family who have decided to admit their child into a centre, the cost is much higher, which results in many families in reporting their children to the police in order to get them into one of these centres.
With young people who suffer from mental health problems, there are centres for minors in hospitalised centres.
PAF, PIF (family support programs), town hall or council teams, who work with the entire family nucleus, along with a psychologist and educator, carry out an evaluation in the home.
When a young person is admitted to a centre by the Unit for Educational Intervention, which is the model for educational measures for young people in supervised liberty, the monitoring of consumption and of the family is required; but in the final report, the changes produced in these areas (school, family, consumption, leisure and free time, etc) take priority, not solely the issue of consumption. We have discussed the principle of sentencing to ensure that it is truly educational the changes in all areas for the young person must be considered.

What measures do you consider successful in relation to this area and what measures are not so?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.- There are no specific addiction treatment programs or centres for minors. There should be, as there are within the field of mental health to treat mental disturbances.

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- In general terms there are a number of points to be made:
- That the law governing minors incorporates a varied list of educational measures.
- Within this law the importance of technical teams is emphasised.
- Small numbers of custodial sentences.
- Neither judges nor specialists, in general, argue in favour of increasing the duration of sentences.
- Resources needed: both people and material.
- A lack of awareness on the part of citizens on what type of sentences are efficient and effective in reducing delinquency.
- Over politicisation of material in the pejorative sense, and too few policies (long term action with structured goals, based upon empirical theories).

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- Young people with complicated family situations will not go to an open centre, as they do not have the necessary motivation and they need an adult figure who will ensure that they will attend and accompany them. All work carried out with the family is an important part of the solution of problems.
In these cases, it is better to work from a joint educational centre – The risk here is that all of the young people who live in these centres tend to have similar profiles and there is a risk that this reinforces these profiles, but the results can also be positive.
If it works, maximum involvement from the family is sought, while working to keep them together, and working on how to deal with these years of increased conflict in which there are many variables which can make the situation explosive. (A constant re-evaluation of commitments). Working on reducing risks, concentrating on ongoing behaviour patterns. Coordinating with all agencies involved in the case. Supporting them where possible, working with people close to them, in whom they can confide and know are there.
Aiming for the exclusive absence of substances does not work. It is very difficult to abandon the consumption of cannabis, given that it is at this particular age that consumption is greatest which usually diminishes with age or with increasing maturity in the young person. Outpatient resources, in terms of minors who are not admitted to centres, do not work with young people who do not have family support, or who are not involved in their trial.

5. What measures should be implemented according to your personal experience in the matter?
Concerning young users/consumers of narcotic substances.

What are the legal/professional competencies/roles in which one must specialise?

Rafael Forcada Chapa.- In my specific area, the specialisation of professionals in addictive behaviour, and particularly to the problems arising from addiction in adolescents.

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- All judges who work with minors should rely on specialised technical teams for advice, and the completion and analysis of reports from these teams should be mandatory before a sentence is imposed.
The ideal situation would be to create structures/platforms of coordination: legal and social services. These services should in turn serve to carry out a rigorous monitoring of the sentence. In this sense, a figure set up in the judicial and social fields should exist to accompany, and tutor the minor in the fulfilment of a sentence, this figure should depend upon administrative bodies and not on a private entity.
It is clear that technical teams must be involved in these structures. In fact, they serve as a basis for socio-judicial measures. One possible situation would be that of implementing technical teams working on open and closed sentences, functioning in the same way as treatment teams in detention centres. The areas of prison surveillance are also lacking.

Accreditation and standardisation of organisations managing detention centres in the private sector, they should rely on qualified staff. This staff should work under the supervision of the technical teams mentioned earlier.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- Lawyers should have better training in the specific area of minors.

Is there any misrepresentation in the legal and professional framework for intervention with these young people? Could this be improved?

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- The need for greater human resources has been mentioned. And coordination between entities involved should also be improved: judicial, police, social bodies.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- It does exist, because within the legal area young people may lie in order to be absolved, even being advised to do so by their lawyer. It should be the case that judgements are educational.
We have touched upon the importance of using mediation in the trial of minors as a mechanism for conflict resolution. Furthermore, mediation is specifically successful in the case of juvenile delinquents and it is not being sufficiently used. This specific method should not be underestimated in conflict resolution; it is much more educational than the judicial process (although it can also be incorporated into this). Mediation is based upon dialogue between both parties (victim and offender), where the minor as a young offender becomes aware of the consequences of his/her actions, and it is therefore easier for him/her to take responsibility for them; and the victim, very often another minor, can feel compensated much more easily or at least has the necessary emotional space to feel compensated. This is not to say that this is the ultimate goal, the community also feels more satisfied with this much more visible and reparative solution.
It could be improved by implementing processes of social incorporation through the use of outpatient resources. For example: when the young person is in a closed regime, we could contemplate alternative obligations as part of an open sentence in outpatient centres (similar to conditioned liberty) after having spent some time in a closed centre (detention centres), with the aim of facilitating social inclusion in a gradual and supervised manner.

Which areas should be improved with in terms of professional cooperation and interaction?

Graciela Silvosa Rodríguez.- Early detection and intervention, which requires linking social policies with punishment policies; intervention in infancy, in families, in education centres, protection centres, not to wait until criminal behaviour comes about. There should be responses to pre-criminal behaviour, socio-educational responses. The importance of social factors on criminal behaviour should not be overlooked. This group particularly suffer from social disadvantages. This requires early detection and intervention in those areas where it occurs: Families, Educational centres, Protection centres, Police stations.

Mª. Jesús Justo Nieto.- Coordination between education, the implementation of prevention in the classroom, the evaluation of the familial situation from educational centres which ultimately is where the young person spends most of his/her time, and when the family is not present, the educational centre is, with the aim of generating early detention. The entire surroundings of the minor and aspects and factors relating to mental health and the legal area of the young person.

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