Juvenile Justice Glossary 'A'

A (11) | B (4) | C (22) | D (6) | E (1) | F (2) | G (1) | H (2) | I (5) | J (5) | L (1) | M (3) | N (5) | O (2) | P (18) | R (9) | S (9) | T (6) | U (1) | V (2) | Y (1)

Acquittal

A child is acquitted where he or she is found not guilty of an offence by a competent authority.
United Nations. Manual for the measurement of the juvenile justice indicators
The legal certification, usually by jury verdict, that an accused person is not guilty of the charged offence.
United Nations. UNTERM

Adjudication hearing

Stage in juvenile court proceedings in which arguments, testimony, and evidence are presented to determine whether a youth actually committed the alleged offense.
United Nations. UNTERM. Author's translation from the original in Spanish

Administrative detention

A child is held in administrative detention where he or she is held specifically under the power or order of the executive branch of government and is not subject to the usual juvenile justice or adult criminal justice system procedure.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Adult Criminal Justice System

The adult criminal justice system consists of the laws, procedures, professionals, authorities and institutions that apply to witnesses and victims, and to adults alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having committed a criminal offence.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child spells out the rights that African States must ensure for children living in their jurisdiction. It is the main instrument of the African human rights system for promoting and protecting child rights.
The Charter, which was adopted by the Organisation of African Unity (now the African Union) in July 1990, entered into force in November 1999. The Charter was the first regional treaty to address child rights. It is divided into two parts of four chapters. Part one deals with the rights, freedoms and duties of the child and has 31 articles. Part two deals with States’ obligations to adopt legislative and other measures to implement the provisions of the Charter and has 18 articles. The African Charter was created partly to complement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), but also because African countries were under-represented in the drafting process of the CRC, and many felt another treaty was needed to address the specific realities of children in Africa.
Children Right International Network

Alternatives to detention

According to the 40 (4) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, a variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counselling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.
United Nations, Resolution 44/25- Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)

Arrest

A child is arrested where he or she is placed under the custody of the police, military, intelligence or other security forces because of actual, perceived or alleged conflict with the law.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. "Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators" (United Nations, New York, 2008).

Assault

'Assault' may be understood to mean physical attack against the body of another person, including battery but excluding indecent assault. Some criminal or penal codes distinguish between aggravated assault and simple assault, depending on the degree of resulting injury.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)

At risk of delinquency

"80.Young people who live in difficult circumstances are often at risk of becoming delinquent. Poverty, dysfunctional families, substance abuse and the death of family members have been demonstrated to be risk factors for becoming delinquent. Insecurity due to an unstable social environment increases vulnerability, and young people with poorly developed social skills are less able to protect themselves against the negative influences of a peer group."
United Nations World Youth Report (2005)

Automobile theft

'Automobile theft' may be understood to mean the removal of a motor vehicle without the consent of the owner of the vehicle.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. "Manual for the Development of a System of Criminal Justice Statistics" (United Nations, New York, 2004)